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Setting up a Private Kubernetes Cluster

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Setting up a Private Kubernetes Cluster

1 hour 30 minutes 5 Credits

GSP178

Google Cloud self-paced labs logo

Overview

In Kubernetes Engine, a private cluster is a cluster that makes your master inaccessible from the public internet. In a private cluster, nodes do not have public IP addresses, only private addresses, so your workloads run in an isolated environment. Nodes and masters communicate with each other using VPC peering.

In the Kubernetes Engine API, address ranges are expressed as Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) blocks.

In this lab you will learn how to create a private Kubernetes cluster.

What you'll do

  • Create a Private Kubernetes Cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Student should already have experience creating and launching Kubernetes Clusters and be thoroughly versed in IP addressing in CIDR Range formats.

Setup

Before you click the Start Lab button

Read these instructions. Labs are timed and you cannot pause them. The timer, which starts when you click Start Lab, shows how long Google Cloud resources will be made available to you.

This hands-on lab lets you do the lab activities yourself in a real cloud environment, not in a simulation or demo environment. It does so by giving you new, temporary credentials that you use to sign in and access Google Cloud for the duration of the lab.

To complete this lab, you need:

  • Access to a standard internet browser (Chrome browser recommended).
Note: Use an Incognito or private browser window to run this lab. This prevents any conflicts between your personal account and the Student account, which may cause extra charges incurred to your personal account.
  • Time to complete the lab---remember, once you start, you cannot pause a lab.
Note: If you already have your own personal Google Cloud account or project, do not use it for this lab to avoid extra charges to your account.

How to start your lab and sign in to the Google Cloud Console

  1. Click the Start Lab button. If you need to pay for the lab, a pop-up opens for you to select your payment method. On the left is the Lab Details panel with the following:

    • The Open Google Console button
    • Time remaining
    • The temporary credentials that you must use for this lab
    • Other information, if needed, to step through this lab
  2. Click Open Google Console. The lab spins up resources, and then opens another tab that shows the Sign in page.

    Tip: Arrange the tabs in separate windows, side-by-side.

    Note: If you see the Choose an account dialog, click Use Another Account.
  3. If necessary, copy the Username from the Lab Details panel and paste it into the Sign in dialog. Click Next.

  4. Copy the Password from the Lab Details panel and paste it into the Welcome dialog. Click Next.

    Important: You must use the credentials from the left panel. Do not use your Google Cloud Skills Boost credentials. Note: Using your own Google Cloud account for this lab may incur extra charges.
  5. Click through the subsequent pages:

    • Accept the terms and conditions.
    • Do not add recovery options or two-factor authentication (because this is a temporary account).
    • Do not sign up for free trials.

After a few moments, the Cloud Console opens in this tab.

Note: You can view the menu with a list of Google Cloud Products and Services by clicking the Navigation menu at the top-left. Navigation menu icon

Activate Cloud Shell

Cloud Shell is a virtual machine that is loaded with development tools. It offers a persistent 5GB home directory and runs on the Google Cloud. Cloud Shell provides command-line access to your Google Cloud resources.

  1. Click Activate Cloud Shell Activate Cloud Shell icon at the top of the Google Cloud console.

  2. Click Continue.

It takes a few moments to provision and connect to the environment. When you are connected, you are already authenticated, and the project is set to your PROJECT_ID. The output contains a line that declares the PROJECT_ID for this session:

Your Cloud Platform project in this session is set to YOUR_PROJECT_ID

gcloud is the command-line tool for Google Cloud. It comes pre-installed on Cloud Shell and supports tab-completion.

  1. (Optional) You can list the active account name with this command:

gcloud auth list

Output:

ACTIVE: * ACCOUNT: student-01-xxxxxxxxxxxx@qwiklabs.net To set the active account, run: $ gcloud config set account `ACCOUNT`
  1. (Optional) You can list the project ID with this command:

gcloud config list project

Output:

[core] project = <project_ID>

Example output:

[core] project = qwiklabs-gcp-44776a13dea667a6 Note: For full documentation of gcloud, in Google Cloud, refer to the gcloud CLI overview guide.

Task 1. Set a zone

Run the following to set the default zone:

gcloud config set compute/zone us-central1-a Note: You can list all available zones with: gcloud compute zones list

Task 2. Creating a private cluster

  1. When you create a private cluster, you must specify a /28 CIDR range for the VMs that run the Kubernetes master components and you need to enable IP aliases.

Next you'll create a cluster named private-cluster, and specify a CIDR range of 172.16.0.16/28 for the masters. When you enable IP aliases, you let Kubernetes Engine automatically create a subnetwork for you.

You'll create the private cluster by using the --private-cluster, --master-ipv4-cidr, and --enable-ip-alias flags.

  1. Run the following to create the cluster:

gcloud beta container clusters create private-cluster \ --enable-private-nodes \ --master-ipv4-cidr 172.16.0.16/28 \ --enable-ip-alias \ --create-subnetwork ""

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have successfully created a private cluster, you will see an assessment score.

Create a private cluster

Task 3. Viewing your subnet and secondary address ranges

  1. List the subnets in the default network:

gcloud compute networks subnets list --network default
  1. In the output, find the name of the subnetwork that was automatically created for your cluster. For example, gke-private-cluster-subnet-xxxxxxxx. Save the name of the cluster, you'll use it in the next step.

  2. Now get information about the automatically created subnet, replacing [SUBNET_NAME] with your subnet by running:

gcloud compute networks subnets describe [SUBNET_NAME] --region us-central1

The output shows you the primary address range with the name of your GKE private cluster and the secondary ranges:

... ipCidrRange: 10.0.0.0/22 kind: compute#subnetwork name: gke-private-cluster-subnet-163e3c97 ... privateIpGoogleAccess: true ... secondaryIpRanges: - ipCidrRange: 10.40.0.0/14 rangeName: gke-private-cluster-pods-163e3c97 - ipCidrRange: 10.0.16.0/20 rangeName: gke-private-cluster-services-163e3c97 ...

In the output you can see that one secondary range is for pods and the other secondary range is for services.

Notice that privateIPGoogleAccess is set to true. This enables your cluster hosts, which have only private IP addresses, to communicate with Google APIs and services.

Task 4. Enabling master authorized networks

At this point, the only IP addresses that have access to the master are the addresses in these ranges:

  • The primary range of your subnetwork. This is the range used for nodes.
  • The secondary range of your subnetwork that is used for pods.

To provide additional access to the master, you must authorize selected address ranges.

Create a VM instance

Create a source instance which you'll use to check the connectivity to Kubernetes clusters:

gcloud compute instances create source-instance --zone us-central1-a --scopes 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform'

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have successfully created a VM instance, you will see an assessment score.

Create a VM instance
  1. Get the <External_IP> of the source-instance with:

gcloud compute instances describe source-instance --zone us-central1-a | grep natIP

Example Output:

natIP: 35.192.107.237
  1. Copy the <nat_IP> address and save it to use in later steps.

  2. Run the following to Authorize your external address range, replacing [MY_EXTERNAL_RANGE] with the CIDR range of the external addresses from the previous output (your CIDR range is natIP/32). With CIDR range as natIP/32, we are allowlisting one specific IP address:

gcloud container clusters update private-cluster \ --enable-master-authorized-networks \ --master-authorized-networks [MY_EXTERNAL_RANGE] Note: In a production environment replace [MY_EXTERNAL_RANGE] with your network external address CIDR range.

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have successfully authorized external address range, you will see an assessment score.

Authorize your external address range

Now that you have access to the master from a range of external addresses, you'll install kubectl so you can use it to get information about your cluster. For example, you can use kubectl to verify that your nodes do not have external IP addresses.

  1. SSH into source-instance with:

gcloud compute ssh source-instance --zone us-central1-a
  1. Press Y to continue. Enter through the passphrase questions.

  2. In SSH shell install kubectl component of Cloud-SDK

gcloud components install kubectl Note: If you get the error: You cannot perform this action because the Cloud SDK component manager is disabled for this installation try to install kubectl component with: sudo apt-get install kubectl
  1. Configure access to the Kubernetes cluster from SSH shell with:

gcloud container clusters get-credentials private-cluster --zone us-central1-a
  1. Verify that your cluster nodes do not have external IP addresses:

kubectl get nodes --output yaml | grep -A4 addresses

The output shows that the nodes have internal IP addresses but do not have external addresses:

... addresses: - address: 10.0.0.4 type: InternalIP - address: "" type: ExternalIP ...
  1. Here is another command you can use to verify that your nodes do not have external IP addresses:

kubectl get nodes --output wide

The output shows an empty column for EXTERNAL-IP:

STATUS ... VERSION EXTERNAL-IP OS-IMAGE ... Ready v1.8.7-gke.1 Container-Optimized OS from Google Ready v1.8.7-gke.1 Container-Optimized OS from Google Ready v1.8.7-gke.1 Container-Optimized OS from Google
  1. Close the SSH shell by typing:

exit

Task 5. Clean Up

  1. Delete the Kubernetes cluster:

gcloud container clusters delete private-cluster --zone us-central1-a
  1. Press Y to continue.

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have successfully deleted the Kubernetes cluster, you will see an assessment score.

Delete the Kubernetes cluster

Task 6. Creating a private cluster that uses a custom subnetwork

In the previous section Kubernetes Engine automatically created a subnetwork for you. In this section, you'll create your own custom subnetwork, and then create a private cluster. Your subnetwork has a primary address range and two secondary address ranges.

Create a subnetwork and secondary ranges:

gcloud compute networks subnets create my-subnet \ --network default \ --range 10.0.4.0/22 \ --enable-private-ip-google-access \ --region us-central1 \ --secondary-range my-svc-range=10.0.32.0/20,my-pod-range=10.4.0.0/14

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have successfully created a subnetwork and secondary ranges in us-central1 region, you will see an assessment score.

Create a subnetwork and secondary ranges in us-central1 region

Create a private cluster that uses your subnetwork:

gcloud beta container clusters create private-cluster2 \ --enable-private-nodes \ --enable-ip-alias \ --master-ipv4-cidr 172.16.0.32/28 \ --subnetwork my-subnet \ --services-secondary-range-name my-svc-range \ --cluster-secondary-range-name my-pod-range

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have successfully created a private cluster that uses your subnetwork, you will see an assessment score.

Create a private cluster that uses your subnetwork

Authorize your external address range, replacing [MY_EXTERNAL_RANGE] with the CIDR range of the external addresses from the previous output:

gcloud container clusters update private-cluster2 \ --enable-master-authorized-networks \ --master-authorized-networks [MY_EXTERNAL_RANGE]

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have successfully authorized your external address range for private cluster in custom subnetwork, you will see an assessment score.

Authorize your external address range for private cluster in custom subnetwork
  1. SSH into source-instance with:

gcloud compute ssh source-instance --zone us-central1-a
  1. Configure access to the Kubernetes cluster from SSH shell with:

gcloud container clusters get-credentials private-cluster2 --zone us-central1-a
  1. Verify that your cluster nodes do not have external IP addresses:

kubectl get nodes --output yaml | grep -A4 addresses

The output shows that the nodes have internal IP addresses but do not have external addresses:

... addresses: - address: 10.0.4.3 type: InternalIP - address: "" type: ExternalIP ...

At this point, the only IP addresses that have access to the master are the addresses in these ranges:

  • The primary range of your subnetwork. This is the range used for nodes. In this example, the range for nodes is 10.0.4.0/22.

  • The secondary range of your subnetwork that is used for pods. In this example, the range for pods is 10.4.0.0/14.

Congratulations!

This concludes hands-on lab with Kubernetes private cluster.

Finish Your Quest

This self-paced lab is part of the Security & Identity Fundamentals Quest. A Quest is a series of related labs that form a learning path. Enroll in a Quest and get immediate completion credit if you've taken this lab. See other available Qwiklabs Quests.

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Manual Last Updated July 21, 2022

Lab Last Tested July 21, 2022

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