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Installing Anthos Service Mesh on Google Kubernetes Engine

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Installing Anthos Service Mesh on Google Kubernetes Engine

1 hour 30 minutes 5 Credits

GSP654

Google Cloud self-paced labs logo

Overview

Istio is an open source framework for connecting, securing, and managing microservices. It can be used with any services, including but not limited to services that are hosted in a Kubernetes cluster. Istio lets you create a network of deployed services with load balancing, service-to-service authentication, monitoring, and more, without requiring any changes in service code.

As one example - in reliable distributed systems, it's common for a system to want to retry a request after a failure, possibly with an exponential backoff delay. There are libraries for Java, Golang and NodeJS that do this. However, employing them within the app means each different app will need to solve that problem independently. The Istio sidecar could do this for the app, automatically.

Anthos Service Mesh

Anthos Service Mesh (ASM) is powered by Istio. With Anthos Service Mesh, you get an Anthos tested, fully supported, distribution of Istio, letting you create and deploy a service mesh with Anthos GKE, whether your cluster is operating in Google Cloud or on-premises.

You can use included configuration profiles with recommended settings customized for either Google Kubernetes Engine or Anthos GKE on-prem.

Finally, Anthos Service Mesh has a suite of additional features and tools that help you observe and manage secure, reliable services in a unified way:

  • Service metrics and logs for HTTP(S) traffic within your mesh's GKE cluster are automatically ingested to Google Cloud.
  • Preconfigured service dashboards give you the information you need to understand your services.
  • In-depth telemetry lets you dig deep into your metrics and logs, filtering and slicing your data on a wide variety of attributes.
  • Service-to-service relationships at a glance help you understand who connects to which service and the services that each service depends on.
  • Service Level Objectives (SLOs) provide insights into the health of your services. You can easily define an SLO and alert on your own standards of service health.

Anthos Service Mesh is the easiest and richest way to implement an Istio-based service mesh on your Anthos clusters.

In this lab, you will install Anthos Service Mesh on a GKE cluster.

What you'll learn

In this lab, you will learn how to perform the following tasks:

  • Provision a cluster on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)

  • Install and configure Anthos Service Mesh

  • Deploy Bookinfo, an Istio-enabled multi-service application

  • Enable external access using an Istio Ingress Gateway

  • Use the Bookinfo application

  • Monitor service performance with the Anthos Service Mesh Dashboard

Setup and requirements

Before you click the Start Lab button

Read these instructions. Labs are timed and you cannot pause them. The timer, which starts when you click Start Lab, shows how long Google Cloud resources will be made available to you.

This hands-on lab lets you do the lab activities yourself in a real cloud environment, not in a simulation or demo environment. It does so by giving you new, temporary credentials that you use to sign in and access Google Cloud for the duration of the lab.

To complete this lab, you need:

  • Access to a standard internet browser (Chrome browser recommended).
Note: Use an Incognito or private browser window to run this lab. This prevents any conflicts between your personal account and the Student account, which may cause extra charges incurred to your personal account.
  • Time to complete the lab---remember, once you start, you cannot pause a lab.
Note: If you already have your own personal Google Cloud account or project, do not use it for this lab to avoid extra charges to your account.

How to start your lab and sign in to the Google Cloud Console

  1. Click the Start Lab button. If you need to pay for the lab, a pop-up opens for you to select your payment method. On the left is the Lab Details panel with the following:

    • The Open Google Console button
    • Time remaining
    • The temporary credentials that you must use for this lab
    • Other information, if needed, to step through this lab
  2. Click Open Google Console. The lab spins up resources, and then opens another tab that shows the Sign in page.

    Tip: Arrange the tabs in separate windows, side-by-side.

    Note: If you see the Choose an account dialog, click Use Another Account.
  3. If necessary, copy the Username from the Lab Details panel and paste it into the Sign in dialog. Click Next.

  4. Copy the Password from the Lab Details panel and paste it into the Welcome dialog. Click Next.

    Important: You must use the credentials from the left panel. Do not use your Google Cloud Skills Boost credentials. Note: Using your own Google Cloud account for this lab may incur extra charges.
  5. Click through the subsequent pages:

    • Accept the terms and conditions.
    • Do not add recovery options or two-factor authentication (because this is a temporary account).
    • Do not sign up for free trials.

After a few moments, the Cloud Console opens in this tab.

Note: You can view the menu with a list of Google Cloud Products and Services by clicking the Navigation menu at the top-left. Navigation menu icon

Activate Cloud Shell

Cloud Shell is a virtual machine that is loaded with development tools. It offers a persistent 5GB home directory and runs on the Google Cloud. Cloud Shell provides command-line access to your Google Cloud resources.

  1. Click Activate Cloud Shell Activate Cloud Shell icon at the top of the Google Cloud console.

When you are connected, you are already authenticated, and the project is set to your PROJECT_ID. The output contains a line that declares the PROJECT_ID for this session:

Your Cloud Platform project in this session is set to YOUR_PROJECT_ID

gcloud is the command-line tool for Google Cloud. It comes pre-installed on Cloud Shell and supports tab-completion.

  1. (Optional) You can list the active account name with this command:

gcloud auth list
  1. Click Authorize.

  2. Your output should now look like this:

Output:

ACTIVE: * ACCOUNT: student-01-xxxxxxxxxxxx@qwiklabs.net To set the active account, run: $ gcloud config set account `ACCOUNT`
  1. (Optional) You can list the project ID with this command:

gcloud config list project

Output:

[core] project = <project_ID>

Example output:

[core] project = qwiklabs-gcp-44776a13dea667a6 Note: For full documentation of gcloud, in Google Cloud, refer to the gcloud CLI overview guide.

Task 1. Set up your project

Verify the SDK configuration

  1. In Cloud Shell, verify your default account is configured.

    Verify that the Cloud SDK is configured to use your Qwiklabs-generated user account.

    gcloud config list

    Output:

    [component_manager] disable_update_check = True [compute] gce_metadata_read_timeout_sec = 5 [core] account = student-xx-xxxx@qwiklabs.net disable_usage_reporting = False project = qwiklabs-gcp-yy-#### [metrics] environment = devshell Your active configuration is: [cloudshell-#####]
  2. Update project configuration if needed.

    If the SDK does not have the default project set correctly, update the configuration. Replace [project_id] with the name of the project provided in the credential section of the Qwiklabs instructions page:

    gcloud config set project [project_id]

Configure environment variables

  • Configure environment variables that will be used in the setup and installation commands:

export PROJECT_ID=$(gcloud config get-value project) export PROJECT_NUMBER=$(gcloud projects describe ${PROJECT_ID} \ --format="value(projectNumber)") export CLUSTER_NAME=central export CLUSTER_ZONE=us-west1-c export WORKLOAD_POOL=${PROJECT_ID}.svc.id.goog export MESH_ID="proj-${PROJECT_NUMBER}" Note:
  • WORKLOAD_POOL will be used to enable Workload Identity, which is the recommended way to safely access Google Cloud services from GKE applications.
  • MESH_ID will be used to set the mesh_id label on the cluster, which is required for metrics to get displayed on the Anthos Service Mesh Dashboard in the Cloud Console.

Verify sufficient permissions

  • In Cloud Shell, verify that your user account has the Owner role assigned:

gcloud projects get-iam-policy $PROJECT_ID \ --flatten="bindings[].members" \ --filter="bindings.members:user:$(gcloud config get-value core/account 2>/dev/null)"

Output:

--- bindings: members: user:student-xx-xxxx@qwiklabs.net role: roles/owner ... Note: Your student user also possesses viewer privileges. Note: To complete setup, you need the permissions associated with these roles:
  • Project Editor
  • Kubernetes Engine Admin
  • Project IAM Admin
  • GKE Hub Admin
  • Service Account Admin
  • Service Account key Admin
If you have the Owner role, you have all these permissions and more, so you're ready to proceed.

Task 2. Set up your GKE cluster

Create the cluster

  1. Now run the following command in Cloud Shell to create the Kubernetes cluster central:

gcloud config set compute/zone ${CLUSTER_ZONE} gcloud beta container clusters create ${CLUSTER_NAME} \ --machine-type=n1-standard-4 \ --num-nodes=4 \ --workload-pool=${WORKLOAD_POOL} \ --enable-stackdriver-kubernetes \ --subnetwork=default \ --release-channel=regular \ --labels mesh_id=${MESH_ID}

Output:

NAME: central LOCATION: us-west1-c MASTER_VERSION: 1.22.11-gke.400 MASTER_IP: 35.247.121.38 MACHINE_TYPE: n1-standard-4 NODE_VERSION: 1.22.11-gke.400 NUM_NODES: 4 STATUS: RUNNING

It will take several minutes for cluster creation to complete.

  1. After your cluster finishes creating, run this command to ensure you have the cluster-admin role on your cluster:

kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding --clusterrole=cluster-admin --user=$(whoami)@qwiklabs.net

Task 3. Prepare to install Anthos Service Mesh

Google provides a tool, asmcli, which allows you to install or upgrade Anthos Service Mesh. If you let it, asmcli will configure your project and cluster as follows:

  • Grant you the required Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions on your Google Cloud project.
  • Enable the required Google APIs on your Cloud project.
  • Set a label on the cluster that identifies the mesh.
  • Create a service account that lets data plane components, such as the sidecar proxy, securely access your project's data and resources.
  • Register the cluster to the fleet if it isn't already registered.

You will use asmcli to install Anthos Service Mesh on your cluster.

  1. Download the version that installs Anthos Service Mesh 1.12.0 to the current working directory:

curl https://storage.googleapis.com/csm-artifacts/asm/asmcli_1.12 > asmcli
  1. Make the script executable:

chmod +x asmcli

Task 4. Validate Anthos Service Mesh

You can run asmcli validate to make sure that your project and cluster are set up as required to install Anthos Service Mesh. With this option, asmcli doesn't make any changes to your project or cluster, and it doesn't install Anthos Service Mesh.

asmcli validates that:

  • Your environment has the required tools.

  • The cluster meets the minimum requirements.

  • You have the required permissions on the specified project.

  • The project has all the required Google APIs enabled.

  • Run the following command to validate your configuration and download the installation file and asm package to the OUTPUT_DIR directory:

./asmcli validate \ --project_id $PROJECT_ID \ --cluster_name $CLUSTER_NAME \ --cluster_location $CLUSTER_ZONE \ --fleet_id $PROJECT_ID \ --output_dir ./asm_output

On success, asmcli outputs the following:

asmcli: Setting up necessary files... asmcli: Using asm_kubeconfig as the kubeconfig... asmcli: Checking installation tool dependencies... asmcli: Fetching/writing GCP credentials to kubeconfig file... asmcli: Verifying connectivity (10s)... asmcli: kubeconfig set to asm_kubeconfig asmcli: using context gke_example-project-12345_us-west1_cluster-2 asmcli: Getting account information... asmcli: Downloading ASM.. asmcli: Downloading ASM kpt package... fetching package "/asm" from "https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/anthos-service-mesh-packages" to "asm" asmcli: Checking required APIs... asmcli: Checking for project example-project-12345... asmcli: Reading labels for us-west1/cluster-2... asmcli: Checking for istio-system namespace... asmcli: Confirming node pool requirements for example-project-12345/us-west1/cluster-2... asmcli: Checking Istio installations... asmcli: [WARNING]: There is no way to validate that the meshconfig API has been initialized. asmcli: [WARNING]: This needs to happen once per GCP project. If the API has not been initialized asmcli: [WARNING]: for example-project-12345, please re-run this tool with the --enable_gcp_components asmcli: [WARNING]: flag. Otherwise, installation will succeed but Anthos Service Mesh asmcli: [WARNING]: will not function correctly. asmcli: Successfully validated all requirements to install ASM. Note: This lab will provide the necessary flags to handle the warnings from the validation command. Note: Please ignore any validation errors as in this case, the validation is confirming that the cluster has all necessary components to install ASM, not that ASM was installed correctly.

Task 5. Install Anthos Service Mesh

The following command will install Anthos Service Mesh. The --enable_all flag allows the script to enable the required Google APIs, set Identity and Access Management permissions, and make the required updates to your cluster, which includes enabling GKE Workload Identity:

./asmcli install \ --project_id $PROJECT_ID \ --cluster_name $CLUSTER_NAME \ --cluster_location $CLUSTER_ZONE \ --fleet_id $PROJECT_ID \ --output_dir ./asm_output \ --enable_all \ --option legacy-default-ingressgateway \ --ca mesh_ca \ --enable_gcp_components

Click Check my progress to verify the objective. Install Anthos Service Mesh

Install an ingress gateway

Anthos Service Mesh gives you the option to deploy and manage gateways as part of your service mesh. A gateway describes a load balancer operating at the edge of the mesh receiving incoming or outgoing HTTP/TCP connections. Gateways are Envoy proxies that provide you with fine-grained control over traffic entering and leaving the mesh.

  1. Create a namespace for the ingress gateway if you don't already have one. Gateways are user workloads, and as a best practice, they shouldn't be deployed in the control plane namespace.

GATEWAY_NS=istio-gateway kubectl create namespace $GATEWAY_NS
  1. Enable auto-injection on the gateway by applying a revision label on the gateway namespace. The revision label is used by the sidecar injector webhook to associate injected proxies with a particular control plane revision.

    • Use the following command to locate the revision label on istiod:

    kubectl get deploy -n istio-system -l app=istiod -o \ jsonpath={.items[*].metadata.labels.'istio\.io\/rev'}'{"\n"}'
    • Store that value in an environment variable:

    REVISION=$(kubectl get deploy -n istio-system -l app=istiod -o \ jsonpath={.items[*].metadata.labels.'istio\.io\/rev'}'{"\n"}')
    • Apply the revision label to the namespace. In the following command, REVISION is the value of the istiod revision label that you noted in the previous step:

    kubectl label namespace $GATEWAY_NS \ istio.io/rev=$REVISION --overwrite
  2. Change to the directory that you specified in --output_dir:

cd ~/asm_output
  1. You can deploy the example ingress gateway configuration located in the samples/gateways/istio-ingressgateway/ directory as is, or modify it as needed:

kubectl apply -n $GATEWAY_NS \ -f samples/gateways/istio-ingressgateway

Enable sidecar injection

Anthos Service Mesh uses sidecar proxies to enhance network security, reliability, and observability. With Anthos Service Mesh, these functions are abstracted away from an application's primary container and implemented in a common out-of-process proxy delivered as a separate container in the same Pod.

  1. Before you deploy workloads, make sure to configure sidecar proxy injection so that Anthos Service Mesh can monitor and secure traffic.

  2. To enable auto-injection, apply the revision label and remove the istio-injection label if it exists.

  3. In the following command, you specify the namespace, default, where you want to enable auto-injection, and REVISION is the revision label you noted in the previous step:

kubectl label namespace default istio-injection- istio.io/rev=$REVISION --overwrite Note: You can ignore the message "istio-injection" not found in the output. That means that the namespace didn't previously have the istio-injection label, which you should expect in new installations of Anthos Service Mesh or new deployments. Note: Sidecar proxy injection is now enabled for future workloads.

If this cluster had already been running workloads, you would need to restart the pods to re-trigger auto injection.

Task 6. Deploy Bookinfo, an Istio-enabled multi-service application

In this task, you will set up the Bookinfo sample microservices application and explore the app.

Bookinfo overview

Now that ASM is configured and verified, you can deploy one of the sample applications provided with the installation — BookInfo. This is a simple mock bookstore application made up of four microservices - all managed using Istio. Each microservice is written in a different language, to demonstrate how you can use Istio in a multi-language environment, without any changes to code.

The microservices are:

  • productpage: calls the details and reviews microservices to populate the page.
  • details: contains book information.
  • reviews: contains book reviews. It also calls the ratings microservice.
  • ratings: contains book ranking information that accompanies a book review.

There are 3 versions of the reviews microservice:

  • Reviews v1 doesn't call the ratings service.
  • Reviews v2 calls the ratings service and displays each rating as 1 - 5 black stars.
  • Reviews v3 calls the ratings service and displays each rating as 1 - 5 red stars.

The end-to-end architecture of the application looks like this:

Bookinfo Architecture

You can find the source code and all the other files used in this example in the Istio samples/bookinfo directory.

Deploy Bookinfo

  1. Look at the .yaml which describes the bookInfo application:

    cd istio-1.12.9-asm.3 cat samples/bookinfo/platform/kube/bookinfo.yaml

    Look for containers to see that each deployment has one container, for each version of each service in the Bookinfo application.

  2. In Cloud Shell, use the following command to inject the proxy sidecar along with each application Pod that is deployed:

    kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/platform/kube/bookinfo.yaml Note:

    Istio uses an extended version of the open-source Envoy proxy, a high-performance proxy developed in C++, to mediate all inbound and outbound traffic for all services in the service mesh.

    Istio leverages Envoy's many built-in features including dynamic service discovery, load balancing, TLS termination, HTTP/2 & gRPC proxying, circuit breakers, health checks, staged rollouts with %-based traffic split, fault injection, and rich metrics.

    Output:

    service/details created serviceaccount/bookinfo-details created deployment.apps/details-v1 created service/ratings created serviceaccount/bookinfo-ratings created deployment.apps/ratings-v1 created service/reviews created serviceaccount/bookinfo-reviews created deployment.apps/reviews-v1 created deployment.apps/reviews-v2 created deployment.apps/reviews-v3 created service/productpage created serviceaccount/bookinfo-productpage created deployment.apps/productpage-v1 created

Click Check my progress to verify the objective. Deploy the BookInfo application

Enable external access using an Istio Ingress Gateway

Now that the Bookinfo services are up and running, you need to make the application accessible from outside of your Kubernetes cluster, e.g. from a browser. An Istio Gateway is used for this purpose.

  1. Look at the .yaml which describes the configuration for the application ingress gateway:

    cat samples/bookinfo/networking/bookinfo-gateway.yaml

    Look for the Gateway and VirtualService mesh resources which get deployed. The Gateway exposes services to users outside the service mesh, and allows Istio features such as monitoring and route rules to be applied to traffic entering the cluster.

  2. Configure the ingress gateway for the application, which exposes an external IP you will use later:

    kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/bookinfo-gateway.yaml

    Output:

    gateway.networking.istio.io/bookinfo-gateway created virtualservice.networking.istio.io/bookinfo created

Verify the Bookinfo deployments

  1. Confirm that the application has been deployed correctly, review services, pods, and the ingress gateway:

    kubectl get services

    Output:

    NAME TYPE ... details ClusterIP ... kubernetes ClusterIP ... productpage ClusterIP ... ratings ClusterIP ... reviews ClusterIP ...
  2. Review running application pods:

    kubectl get pods

    Output:

    NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE details-v1-79f774bdb9-6l54w 2/2 Running 0 101s productpage-v1-6b746f74dc-4xccm 2/2 Running 0 100s ratings-v1-b6994bb9-7g4z2 2/2 Running 0 100s reviews-v1-545db77b95-hkh9p 2/2 Running 0 100s reviews-v2-7bf8c9648f-cmsxj 2/2 Running 0 100s reviews-v3-84779c7bbc-8b8qp 2/2 Running 0 100s

    You may need to re-run this command until you see that all six pods are in Running status.

  3. Confirm that the Bookinfo application is running by sending a curl request to it from some Pod, within the cluster, for example from ratings:

    kubectl exec -it $(kubectl get pod -l app=ratings \ -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') \ -c ratings -- curl productpage:9080/productpage | grep -o "<title>.*</title>"

    Output:

    Simple Bookstore App
  4. Confirm the ingress gateway has been created:

    kubectl get gateway

    Output:

    NAME AGE bookinfo-gateway 20m
  5. Get the external IP address of the ingress gateway:

    kubectl get svc istio-ingressgateway -n istio-system

    Output:

    NAME TYPE ... EXTERNAL-IP ... istio-ingressgateway LoadBalancer ... 34.72.220.30 ...

    In this example, the external IP of the ingress gateway is 34.72.220.30.

  6. Now run the following command, replacing [EXTERNAL-IP] with the external IP that was outputted from the previous command:

    export GATEWAY_URL=[EXTERNAL-IP]
  7. Check that the Bookinfo app is running by sending a curl request to it from outside the cluster:

    curl -I http://${GATEWAY_URL}/productpage

    Output:

    HTTP/1.1 200 OK content-type: text/html; charset=utf-8 content-length: 4183 server: istio-envoy ...

Task 7. Use the Bookinfo application

Try the application in your Web browser

  1. Point your browser to http://[$GATEWAY_URL]/productpage to see the BookInfo web page. Don't forget to replace [$GATEWAY_URL] with your working external IP address.

    Bookinfo Product Page

  2. Refresh the page several times.

    Notice how you see three different versions of reviews, since we have not yet used Istio to control the version routing.

    There are three different book review services being called in a round-robin style:

    • no stars
    • black stars
    • red stars

    Switching among the three is normal Kubernetes routing/balancing behavior.

Generate a steady background load

Run the siege utility to simulate traffic to Bookinfo.

  1. In Cloud Shell, install siege:

    Siege is a utility for generating load against Web sites.

    sudo apt install siege
  2. Use siege to create traffic against your services:

    siege http://${GATEWAY_URL}/productpage

Task 8. Evaluate service performance using the Anthos Service Mesh dashboard

Gather data from the Services table view.

  1. In the Console, go to Navigation menu > Anthos > Service Mesh.

  2. On the bottom half of the window, you will see a Service section.

    How many services are listed?

  3. Click on the productpage service to drill down and see more details.

    productpage service highlighted

    Note the summary at the top detailing current requests/second, error rates, latencies, and resource usage.

    If you don't see Requests > 0, try exiting and re-entering the productpage service after a few minutes.

  4. On the left side of the window, click on the Metrics option. Explore the different graphs and their breakdown options.

    • What is the current request rate, and how has it changed over time?
    • What is the current error rate, and how has it changed over time?
    • What latencies do you see charted?
    • What is the median request size?
    • What is median response size?
    • What is the aggregate cpu usage?
  5. Click on the Connected Services option from the left side.

    This lists other services that make inbound requests of the productpage, and services the productpage makes outbound requests to.

    • What services make calls to the productpage service?
    • What services does the productpage service call?
    • Is mTLS enforced on inter-service calls?
    Note: The ratings service does not normally send requests to the productpage service. The ratings service is shown here because you used the ratings service to issue a test request as part of this lab.
  6. Return to the Anthos Service Mesh dashboard by clicking on the Anthos Service Mesh logo in the upper left corner.

    Anthos Service Mesh logo

At this time, you can explore or drill down on other services.

Note:

The top section of the dashboard shows information about Service Level Objectives (SLOs) and Alerts.

SLOs are targets for Service Level Indicators (SLIs); they embody your definition of how well a service should perform. An example SLO would be 99.9% of hourly requests return a 200 response. You might define an alerting policy that pages on-call staff when your service is failing to meet its SLOs.

Look for other labs where you can define and test SLOs!

Use the Topology view to better visualize your mesh

  1. On the Anthos Service Mesh dashboard, click on the TOPOLOGY link in the upper-right corner.

    TOPOLOGY link

    Here you may need to wait a few minutes for the topology graph to appear.

  2. Rearrange the nodes in the graph until you can easily visualize the relationships between services and workloads.

    Remember, external requests start at productpage. You can scroll back and study the Bookinfo architecture diagram at the Bookinfo Overview.

    Your drawing might look something like this:

    Service Mesh diagram

    Note: You may need to click on Expand to see all the nodes.
  3. Click on the productpage service node.

    You should see a service details card:

    Service details card

    • How many requests per second is this service receiving?
    • What are the median and 99% latencies?
  4. Now, hover over each of the service nodes and notice edge stats.

    • How many requests/second is the productpage service receiving, and from where?
    • How many requests per second is the service forwarding to the productpage-v1 workload?

    You should see traffic details like this:

    Traffic details diagram

  5. Drill down on one of the workloads until you can see the deployment, the replica set, and the Pods.

    It should look something like this:

    Deployment, the replica set, and the Pods diagram

Congratulations!

In this lab, you deployed a GKE cluster, Anthos Service Mesh, and an Istio-enabled application. You also used the Anthos Service Mesh dashboard to better understand the service performance and topology of your application.

Finish your quest

This self-paced lab is part of the Anthos Service Mesh quest. A quest is a series of related labs that form a learning path. Completing this quest earns you a badge to recognize your achievement. You can make your badge or badges public and link to them in your online resume or social media account. Enroll in this quest and get immediate completion credit. Refer to the Google Cloud Skills Boost catalog for all available quests.

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Manual Last Updated August 30, 2022

Lab Last Tested August 30, 2022

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