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Deploying Memcached on Kubernetes Engine

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Deploying Memcached on Kubernetes Engine

1 hour 30 minutes 5 Credits

GSP116

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Overview

In this lab you'll learn how to deploy a cluster of distributed Memcached servers on Kubernetes Engine using Kubernetes, Helm, and Mcrouter. Memcached is one of the most popular open source, multi-purpose caching systems. It usually serves as a temporary store for frequently used data to speed up web applications and lighten database loads.

What you'll learn

  • Learn about some characteristics of Memcached's distributed architecture.

  • Deploy a Memcached service to Kubernetes Engine using Kubernetes and Helm.

  • Deploy Mcrouter, an open source Memcached proxy, to improve the system's performance.

Memcached's characteristics

Memcached has two main design goals:

  • Simplicity: Memcached functions like a large hash table and offers a simple API to store and retrieve arbitrarily shaped objects by key.
  • Speed: Memcached holds cache data exclusively in random-access memory (RAM), making data access extremely fast.

Memcached is a distributed system that allows its hash table capacity to scale horizontally across a pool of servers. Each Memcached server operates in complete isolation from the other servers in the pool. Therefore, the routing and load balancing between the servers must be done at the client level. Memcached clients apply a consistent hashing scheme to appropriately select the target servers. This scheme guarantees the following conditions:

  • The same server is always selected for the same key.
  • Memory usage is evenly balanced between the servers.
  • A minimum number of keys are relocated when the pool of servers is reduced or expanded.

The following diagram illustrates at a high level the interaction between a Memcached client and a distributed pool of Memcached servers.

Memcached client-server interaction diagram

Setup and requirements

Before you click the Start Lab button

Read these instructions. Labs are timed and you cannot pause them. The timer, which starts when you click Start Lab, shows how long Google Cloud resources will be made available to you.

This hands-on lab lets you do the lab activities yourself in a real cloud environment, not in a simulation or demo environment. It does so by giving you new, temporary credentials that you use to sign in and access Google Cloud for the duration of the lab.

To complete this lab, you need:

  • Access to a standard internet browser (Chrome browser recommended).
Note: Use an Incognito or private browser window to run this lab. This prevents any conflicts between your personal account and the Student account, which may cause extra charges incurred to your personal account.
  • Time to complete the lab---remember, once you start, you cannot pause a lab.
Note: If you already have your own personal Google Cloud account or project, do not use it for this lab to avoid extra charges to your account.

How to start your lab and sign in to the Google Cloud Console

  1. Click the Start Lab button. If you need to pay for the lab, a pop-up opens for you to select your payment method. On the left is the Lab Details panel with the following:

    • The Open Google Console button
    • Time remaining
    • The temporary credentials that you must use for this lab
    • Other information, if needed, to step through this lab
  2. Click Open Google Console. The lab spins up resources, and then opens another tab that shows the Sign in page.

    Tip: Arrange the tabs in separate windows, side-by-side.

    Note: If you see the Choose an account dialog, click Use Another Account.
  3. If necessary, copy the Username from the Lab Details panel and paste it into the Sign in dialog. Click Next.

  4. Copy the Password from the Lab Details panel and paste it into the Welcome dialog. Click Next.

    Important: You must use the credentials from the left panel. Do not use your Google Cloud Skills Boost credentials. Note: Using your own Google Cloud account for this lab may incur extra charges.
  5. Click through the subsequent pages:

    • Accept the terms and conditions.
    • Do not add recovery options or two-factor authentication (because this is a temporary account).
    • Do not sign up for free trials.

After a few moments, the Cloud Console opens in this tab.

Note: You can view the menu with a list of Google Cloud Products and Services by clicking the Navigation menu at the top-left. Navigation menu icon

Activate Cloud Shell

Cloud Shell is a virtual machine that is loaded with development tools. It offers a persistent 5GB home directory and runs on the Google Cloud. Cloud Shell provides command-line access to your Google Cloud resources.

  1. Click Activate Cloud Shell Activate Cloud Shell icon at the top of the Google Cloud console.

  2. Click Continue.

It takes a few moments to provision and connect to the environment. When you are connected, you are already authenticated, and the project is set to your PROJECT_ID. The output contains a line that declares the PROJECT_ID for this session:

Your Cloud Platform project in this session is set to YOUR_PROJECT_ID

gcloud is the command-line tool for Google Cloud. It comes pre-installed on Cloud Shell and supports tab-completion.

  1. (Optional) You can list the active account name with this command:

gcloud auth list

Output:

ACTIVE: * ACCOUNT: student-01-xxxxxxxxxxxx@qwiklabs.net To set the active account, run: $ gcloud config set account `ACCOUNT`
  1. (Optional) You can list the project ID with this command:

gcloud config list project

Output:

[core] project = <project_ID>

Example output:

[core] project = qwiklabs-gcp-44776a13dea667a6 Note: For full documentation of gcloud, in Google Cloud, refer to the gcloud CLI overview guide.

Task 1. Deploying a Memcached service

A simple way to deploy a Memcached service to Kubernetes Engine is to use a Helm chart.

  • In Cloud Shell, create a new Kubernetes Engine cluster of three nodes:

gcloud container clusters create demo-cluster --num-nodes 3 --zone us-central1-f

This deployment will take between five and ten minutes to complete. You may see a warning about default scopes that you can safely ignore as it has no impact on this lab.

Note: The cluster's zone specified here is arbitrary. You can select another zone for your cluster from the available zones.

Configure Helm

Helm is a package manager that makes it easy to configure and deploy Kubernetes applications. Your Cloud Shell will already have a recent, stable version of Helm pre-installed.

If curious, you can run helm version in Cloud Shell to check which version you are using and also ensure that Helm is installed.

  1. Add Helm's stable chart repository:

helm repo add stable https://charts.helm.sh/stable
  1. Update the repo to ensure you get the latest list of charts:

helm repo update
  1. Install a new Memcached Helm chart release with three replicas, one for each node:

helm install mycache stable/memcached --set replicaCount=3

The Memcached Helm chart uses a StatefulSet controller. One benefit of using a StatefulSet controller is that the pods' names are ordered and predictable. In this case, the names are mycache-memcached-{0..2}. This ordering makes it easier for Memcached clients to reference the servers.

Note: If you get: "Error: could not find a ready tiller pod." wait a few seconds and retry the Helm install command. The tiller pod may not have had time to initialize.
  1. Execute the following command to see the running pods:

kubectl get pods

Resulting output:

NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE mycache-memcached-0 1/1 Running 0 45s mycache-memcached-1 1/1 Running 0 35s mycache-memcached-2 1/1 Running 0 25s

You may need to run the previous command again to see all three pods in the Ready 1/1 status.

Click Check my progress to verify the objective.

Deploying a Memcached service

Discovering Memcached service endpoints

The Memcached Helm chart uses a headless service. A headless service exposes IP addresses for all of its pods so that they can be individually discovered.

  1. Verify that the deployed service is headless:

kubectl get service mycache-memcached -o jsonpath="{.spec.clusterIP}" ; echo

The output None confirms that the service has no clusterIP and that it is therefore headless.

  1. In this lab the service creates a DNS record for a hostname of the form:

[SERVICE_NAME].[NAMESPACE].svc.cluster.local

In this lab the service name is mycache-memcached. Because a namespace was not explicitly defined, the default namespace is used, and therefore the entire hostname is mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local. This hostname resolves to a set of IP addresses and domains for all three pods exposed by the service. If, in the future, some pods get added to the pool, or old ones get removed, kube-dns will automatically update the DNS record.

It is the client's responsibility to discover the Memcached service endpoints. To do that:

  1. Retrieve the endpoints' IP addresses:

kubectl get endpoints mycache-memcached

The output is similar to the following:

NAME ENDPOINTS AGE mycache-memcached 10.36.0.32:11211,10.36.0.33:11211,10.36.1.25:11211 3m

Notice that each Memcached pod has a separate IP address. These IP addresses might differ for your own server instances. Each pod listens to port 11211, which is Memcached's default port.

There are a number of alternative methods that can be used such as these two optional examples. You can carry out these steps if you have time, or move directly to the next step where you test the deployment using telnet:

Note - alternate methods: You can retrieve those same records using a standard DNS query with the nslookup command: kubectl run -it --rm alpine --image=alpine:3.6 --restart=Never nslookup mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local

The output is similar to the following:

Name: mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local Address 1: 10.0.0.8 mycache-memcached-0.mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local Address 2: 10.0.1.5 mycache-memcached-2.mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local Address 3: 10.0.2.3 mycache-memcached-1.mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local pod "alpine" deleted Note: You can ignore the nslookup: can't resolve '(null)': Name does not resolve flag if it shows up. Notice that each server has its own domain name of the following form: [POD_NAME].[SERVICE_NAME].[NAMESPACE].svc.cluster.local

For example, the domain for the mycache-memcached-0 pod is:

Mycache-memcached-0.mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local Note: For another alternative approach, you can perform the same DNS inspection by using a programming language like Python.
  1. Start a Python interactive console inside your cluster:

kubectl run -it --rm python --image=python:3.6-alpine --restart=Never python
  1. In the Python console, run these commands:

import socket print(socket.gethostbyname_ex('mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local')) exit() Note: It takes a while for the pod to get deleted, please wait. Note: The output is similar to the following and is echoed to the console before the exit() command:

('mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local', ['mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local'], ['10.36.0.32', '10.36.0.33', '10.36.1.25'])
  1. Test the deployment by opening a telnet session with one of the running Memcached servers on port 11211:

kubectl run -it --rm alpine --image=alpine:3.6 --restart=Never telnet mycache-memcached-0.mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local 11211

This will open a session to the telnet interface with no obvious prompt. Don't mind the If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter--you can start plugging in commands right away (even if the formatting looks a little off.)

At the telnet prompt run these commands using the Memcached ASCII protocol to confirm that telnet is actually connected to a Memcached server instance. As this is a telnet session, enter each set of commands and wait for the response to avoid getting commands and responses mixed on the console.

  1. Store the key:

set mykey 0 0 5 hello
  1. Press Enter and you will see the response:
STORED
  1. Retrieve the key:

get mykey
  1. Press Enter and you will see the response:
VALUE mykey 0 5 hello END
  1. Quit the telnet session:

quit
  1. Press Enter to close the session if it does not automatically exit.
Note: It takes a while for the pod to get deleted, please wait.

Task 2. Implementing the service discovery logic

You are now ready to implement the basic service discovery logic shown in the following diagram.

Basic service discovery logic diagram

At a high level, the service discovery logic consists of the following steps:

  1. The application queries kube-dns for the DNS record of mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local.

  2. The application retrieves the IP addresses associated with that record.

  3. The application instantiates a new Memcached client and provides it with the retrieved IP addresses.

  4. The Memcached client's integrated load balancer connects to the Memcached servers at the given IP addresses.

Implement the service discovery logic

You now implement this service discovery logic by using Python.

  1. Deploy a new Python-enabled pod in your cluster and start a shell session inside the pod:

kubectl run -it --rm python --image=python:3.6-alpine --restart=Never sh
  1. Once you get a shell prompt (/ #) install the pymemcache library:

pip install pymemcache
  1. Start a Python interactive console by running the python command.

python
  1. In the Python console (>>>), run the following:

import socket from pymemcache.client.hash import HashClient _, _, ips = socket.gethostbyname_ex('mycache-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local') servers = [(ip, 11211) for ip in ips] client = HashClient(servers, use_pooling=True) client.set('mykey', 'hello') client.get('mykey') Note: If you are getting the error SyntaxError: multiple statements found while compiling a single statement then run the above command line by line.

The output that results from the last command:

b'hello'

The b prefix signifies a bytes literal, which is the format in which Memcached stores data.

  1. Exit the Python console:

exit()
  1. Exit the pod's shell session by pressing Control+D.

Task 3. Enabling connection pooling

As your caching needs grow, and the pool scales up to dozens, hundreds, or thousands of Memcached servers, you might run into some limitations. In particular, the large number of open connections from Memcached clients might place a heavy load on the servers, as the following diagram shows.

Memcached client-server open connections diagram

To reduce the number of open connections, you must introduce a proxy to enable connection pooling, as in the following diagram.

Proxy between client and server connections

Mcrouter (pronounced "mick router"), a powerful open source Memcached proxy, enables connection pooling. Integrating Mcrouter is seamless, because it uses the standard Memcached ASCII protocol. To a Memcached client, Mcrouter behaves like a normal Memcached server. To a Memcached server, Mcrouter behaves like a normal Memcached client.

Deploy Mcrouter

To deploy Mcrouter, run the following commands in Cloud Shell.

  1. Uninstall the previously installed mycache Helm chart release:

helm delete mycache

Output

release "mycache" uninstalled
  1. Deploy new Memcached pods and Mcrouter pods by installing a new Mcrouter Helm chart release:

helm install mycache stable/mcrouter --set memcached.replicaCount=3
  1. Check the status of the sample application deployment:

kubectl get pods

Click Check my progress to verify the objective.

Deploy Mcrouter

Repeat the kubectl get pods command periodically until all 3 of the mycache-mcrouter pods report a STATUS of Running and a READY state of 1/1. This may take a couple of minutes. Three mycache-memcached pods are also started by this command and they will initialize first, however you must wait for the mycache-mcrouter pods to be fully ready before proceeding or the pod ip-addresses will not be configured.

Once you see the READY state of 1/1 the mycache-mcrouter proxy pods are now ready to accept requests from client applications.

  1. Test this setup by connecting to one of the proxy pods. Use the telnet command on port 5000, which is Mcrouter's default port.

MCROUTER_POD_IP=$(kubectl get pods -l app=mycache-mcrouter -o jsonpath="{.items[0].status.podIP}") kubectl run -it --rm alpine --image=alpine:3.6 --restart=Never telnet $MCROUTER_POD_IP 5000

This will open a session to the telnet interface with no obvious prompt. It'll be ready right away.

In the telnet prompt, run these commands to test the Mcrouter configuration:

  1. Store a key:

set anotherkey 0 0 15 Mcrouter is fun
  1. Press ENTER and you will see the response:
STORED
  1. Retrieve the key:

get anotherkey
  1. Press ENTER and you will see the response:
VALUE anotherkey 0 15 Mcrouter is fun END
  1. Quit the telnet session.

quit

You have now deployed a proxy that enables connection pooling.

Task 4. Reducing latency

To increase resilience, it is common practice to use a cluster with multiple nodes. This lab uses a cluster with three nodes. However, using multiple nodes also brings the risk of increased latency caused by heavier network traffic between nodes.

Colocating proxy pods

You can reduce the latency risk by connecting client application pods only to a Memcached proxy pod that is on the same node. The following diagram illustrates this configuration which shows the topology for the interactions between application pods, Mcrouter pods, and Memcached pods across a cluster of three nodes.

Interaction topology between nodes 1, 2, and 3

In a production environment, you would create this configuration as follows:

  1. Ensure that each node contains one running proxy pod. A common approach is to deploy the proxy pods with a DaemonSet controller. As nodes are added to the cluster, new proxy pods are automatically added to them. As nodes are removed from the cluster, those pods are garbage-collected. In this lab, the Mcrouter Helm chart that you deployed earlier uses a DaemonSet controller by default. So this step is already complete.

  2. Set a hostPort value in the proxy container's Kubernetes parameters to make the node listen to that port and redirect traffic to the proxy. In this lab, the Mcrouter Helm chart uses this parameter by default for port 5000. So this step is also already complete.

  3. Expose the node name as an environment variable inside the application pods by using the spec.env entry and selecting the spec.nodeName fieldRef value. See more about this method in the Kubernetes documentation. You will perform this step in the next section.

Configure application pods to expose the Kubernetes node name as an environment variable

  1. Deploy some sample application pods with the NODE_NAME environment variable configured to contain the Kubernetes node name by entering the following in the Google Cloud Shell:

cat <<EOF | kubectl create -f - apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: sample-application-py spec: replicas: 5 selector: matchLabels: app: sample-application-py template: metadata: labels: app: sample-application-py spec: containers: - name: python image: python:3.6-alpine command: [ "sh", "-c"] args: - while true; do sleep 10; done; env: - name: NODE_NAME valueFrom: fieldRef: fieldPath: spec.nodeName EOF
  1. Enter the following command to check the status of the sample application-py deployment:

kubectl get pods
  1. Repeat the kubectl get pods command until all 5 of the sample-application pods report a Status of Running and a READY state of 1/1. This may take a minute or two.

Click Check my progress to verify the objective.

Reducing latency
  1. Verify that the node name is exposed to each pod, by looking inside one of the sample application pods:

POD=$(kubectl get pods -l app=sample-application-py -o jsonpath="{.items[0].metadata.name}") kubectl exec -it $POD -- sh -c 'echo $NODE_NAME'

You will see the node's name in the output in the following form:

gke-demo-cluster-default-pool-XXXXXXXX-XXXX

Connecting the pods

The sample application pods are now ready to connect to the Mcrouter pod that runs on their respective mutual nodes at port 5000, which is Mcrouter's default port.

  1. Use the node name that was outputted when you ran the previous command (kubectl exec -it $POD -- sh -c 'echo $NODE_NAME) and use it in the following to initiate a connection for one of the pods by opening a telnet session:

kubectl run -it --rm alpine --image=alpine:3.6 --restart=Never telnet gke-demo-cluster-default-pool-XXXXXXXX-XXXX 5000

Remember, telnet prompts aren't obvious, so you can start plugging commands in right away.

  1. In the telnet prompt, run these commands:

get anotherkey

This command outputs the value of this key that we set on the memcached cluster using Mcrouter in the previous section:

VALUE anotherkey 0 15 Mcrouter is fun END
  1. Quit the telnet session.

quit

Finally, to demonstrate using code:

  1. Open up a shell on one of the application nodes and prepare an interactive Python session.

kubectl exec -it $POD -- sh pip install pymemcache python
  1. On the Python command line, enter the following Python commands that set and retrieve a key value using the NODE_NAME environment variable to locate the Mcrouter node from the application's environment. This variable was set in the sample application configuration.

import os from pymemcache.client.base import Client NODE_NAME = os.environ['NODE_NAME'] client = Client((NODE_NAME, 5000)) client.set('some_key', 'some_value') result = client.get('some_key') result

You will see output similar to:

b'some_value'
  1. Finally retrieve the key value you set earlier:

result = client.get('anotherkey') result

You will see output similar to:

b'Mcrouter is fun'
  1. Exit the Python interactive console

exit()
  1. Then press Control+D to close the shell to the sample application pod.

Congratulations!

You have now completed the Deploying Memcached on Kubernetes Engine lab.

Finish your quest

This self-paced lab is part of the Google Cloud Solutions I: Scaling Your Infrastructure and Deploying Applications quests. A quest is a series of related labs that form a learning path. Completing a quest earns you a badge to recognize your achievement. You can make your badge or badges public and link to them in your online resume or social media account. Enroll in any quest that contains this lab and get immediate completion credit. Refer to the Google Cloud Skills Boost catalog for all available quests.

Take your next lab

Continue your Quest with Setting up Jenkins on Kubernetes Engine, or check out these suggestions:

Next steps / Learn more

Here are some follow-up steps:

  • Explore the many other features that Mcrouter offers beyond simple connection pooling, such as failover replicas, reliable delete streams, cold cache warmup, multi-cluster broadcast.
  • Explore the source files of the Memcached chart and Mcrouter chart for more details on the respective Kubernetes configurations.
  • Read about effective techniques for using Memcached on App Engine. Some of them apply to other platforms, such as Kubernetes Engine.

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Manual Last Updated August 16, 2022

Lab Last Tested March 28, 2022

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