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VPC Networks - Controlling Access

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VPC Networks - Controlling Access

1 hour 5 Credits

GSP213

Google Cloud self-paced labs logo

Overview

In this lab, you create two nginx web servers and control external HTTP access to the web servers using tagged firewall rules. Then, you explore IAM roles and service accounts.

Objectives

In this lab, you learn how to perform the following tasks:

  • Create an nginx web server

  • Create tagged firewall rules

  • Create a service account with IAM roles

  • Explore permissions for the Network Admin and Security Admin roles

Setup and requirements

Before you click the Start Lab button

Read these instructions. Labs are timed and you cannot pause them. The timer, which starts when you click Start Lab, shows how long Google Cloud resources will be made available to you.

This hands-on lab lets you do the lab activities yourself in a real cloud environment, not in a simulation or demo environment. It does so by giving you new, temporary credentials that you use to sign in and access Google Cloud for the duration of the lab.

To complete this lab, you need:

  • Access to a standard internet browser (Chrome browser recommended).
Note: Use an Incognito or private browser window to run this lab. This prevents any conflicts between your personal account and the Student account, which may cause extra charges incurred to your personal account.
  • Time to complete the lab---remember, once you start, you cannot pause a lab.
Note: If you already have your own personal Google Cloud account or project, do not use it for this lab to avoid extra charges to your account.

How to start your lab and sign in to the Google Cloud Console

  1. Click the Start Lab button. If you need to pay for the lab, a pop-up opens for you to select your payment method. On the left is the Lab Details panel with the following:

    • The Open Google Console button
    • Time remaining
    • The temporary credentials that you must use for this lab
    • Other information, if needed, to step through this lab
  2. Click Open Google Console. The lab spins up resources, and then opens another tab that shows the Sign in page.

    Tip: Arrange the tabs in separate windows, side-by-side.

    Note: If you see the Choose an account dialog, click Use Another Account.
  3. If necessary, copy the Username from the Lab Details panel and paste it into the Sign in dialog. Click Next.

  4. Copy the Password from the Lab Details panel and paste it into the Welcome dialog. Click Next.

    Important: You must use the credentials from the left panel. Do not use your Google Cloud Skills Boost credentials. Note: Using your own Google Cloud account for this lab may incur extra charges.
  5. Click through the subsequent pages:

    • Accept the terms and conditions.
    • Do not add recovery options or two-factor authentication (because this is a temporary account).
    • Do not sign up for free trials.

After a few moments, the Cloud Console opens in this tab.

Note: You can view the menu with a list of Google Cloud Products and Services by clicking the Navigation menu at the top-left. Navigation menu icon

Activate Cloud Shell

Cloud Shell is a virtual machine that is loaded with development tools. It offers a persistent 5GB home directory and runs on the Google Cloud. Cloud Shell provides command-line access to your Google Cloud resources.

  1. Click Activate Cloud Shell Activate Cloud Shell icon at the top of the Google Cloud console.

  2. Click Continue.

It takes a few moments to provision and connect to the environment. When you are connected, you are already authenticated, and the project is set to your PROJECT_ID. The output contains a line that declares the PROJECT_ID for this session:

Your Cloud Platform project in this session is set to YOUR_PROJECT_ID

gcloud is the command-line tool for Google Cloud. It comes pre-installed on Cloud Shell and supports tab-completion.

  1. (Optional) You can list the active account name with this command:

gcloud auth list

Output:

ACTIVE: * ACCOUNT: student-01-xxxxxxxxxxxx@qwiklabs.net To set the active account, run: $ gcloud config set account `ACCOUNT`
  1. (Optional) You can list the project ID with this command:

gcloud config list project

Output:

[core] project = <project_ID>

Example output:

[core] project = qwiklabs-gcp-44776a13dea667a6 Note: For full documentation of gcloud, in Google Cloud, refer to the gcloud CLI overview guide.

Task 1. Create the web servers

Create two web servers (blue and green) in the default VPC network. Then, install nginx on the webservers and modify the welcome page to distinguish the servers.

Create the blue server

Create the blue server with a network tag.

  1. In the Console, navigate to Navigation menu (Navigation menu icon) > Compute Engine > VM instances.

Navigation menu

  1. Click Create Instance.

  2. Set the following values, leave all other values at their defaults:

    Property Value (type value or select option as specified)
    Name blue
    Region us-central1 (Iowa)
    Zone us-central1-a

    For more information on available regions and zones, in the Google Cloud Compute Engine Region and Zone guide, see the Available regions and zones section of the Compute Engine Guides.

  3. Click NETWORKING, DISKS, SECURITY, MANAGEMENT, SOLE-TENANCY.

  4. Click Networking.

  5. For Network tags, type web-server.

Note: Networks use network tags to identify which VM instances are subject to certain firewall rules and network routes. Later in this lab, you create a firewall rule to allow HTTP access for VM instances with the web-server tag. Alternatively, you could check the Allow HTTP traffic checkbox, which would tag this instance as http-server and create the tagged firewall rule for tcp:80 for you.
  1. Click Create.

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have completed the task successfully you will be granted an assessment score.

Create the blue server.

Create the green server

Create the green server without a network tag.

  1. Still in the Console, in the VM instances dialog, click Create instance.

  2. Set the following values, leave all other values at their defaults:

    Property Value (type value or select option as specified)
    Name green
    Region us-central1 (Iowa)
    Zone us-central1-a
  3. Click Create.

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have completed the task successfully you will be granted an assessment score.

Create the green server.

Install nginx and customize the welcome page

Install nginx on both VM instances and modify the welcome page to distinguish the servers.

  1. Still in the VM instances dialog, for blue, click SSH to launch a terminal and connect.

  2. In the SSH terminal to blue, run the following command to install nginx:

sudo apt-get install nginx-light -y
  1. Open the welcome page in the nano editor:

sudo nano /var/www/html/index.nginx-debian.html
  1. Replace the <h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1> line with <h1>Welcome to the blue server!</h1>.

  2. Press CTRL+o, ENTER, CTRL+x.

  3. Verify the change:

cat /var/www/html/index.nginx-debian.html

The output should contain the following:

<h1>Welcome to the blue server!</h1> <p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and working. Further configuration is required.</p>
  1. Close the SSH terminal to blue:

exit

Repeat the same steps for the green server:

  1. For green, click SSH to launch a terminal and connect.

  2. Install nginx:

sudo apt-get install nginx-light -y
  1. Open the welcome page in the nano editor:

sudo nano /var/www/html/index.nginx-debian.html
  1. Replace the <h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1> line with <h1>Welcome to the green server!</h1>.

  2. Press CTRL+o, ENTER, CTRL+x.

  3. Verify the change:

cat /var/www/html/index.nginx-debian.html

The output should contain the following:

<h1>Welcome to the green server!</h1> <p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and working. Further configuration is required.</p>
  1. Close the SSH terminal to green:

exit

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have completed the task successfully you will be granted an assessment score.

Install Nginx and customize the welcome page.

Task 2. Create the firewall rule

Create the tagged firewall rule and test HTTP connectivity.

Create the tagged firewall rule

Create a firewall rule that applies to VM instances with the web-server network tag.

  1. In the Console, navigate to Navigation menu (Navigation menu icon) > VPC network > Firewall.
  2. Notice the default-allow-internal firewall rule.
Note: The default-allow-internal firewall rule allows traffic on all protocols/ports within the default network. You want to create a firewall rule to allow traffic from outside this network to only the blue server, by using the network tag web-server.
  1. Click Create Firewall Rule.

  2. Set the following values, leave all other values at their defaults and click Create:

    Property Value (type value or select option as specified)
    Name allow-http-web-server
    Network default
    Targets Specified target tags
    Target tags web-server
    Source filter IPv4 Ranges
    Source IPv4 ranges 0.0.0.0/0
    Protocols and ports Specified protocols and ports, and then check tcp, type: 80; and check Other protocols, type: icmp.
Note: Make sure to include the /0 in the Source IP ranges to specify all networks.
  1. Click Create.

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have completed the task successfully you will be granted an assessment score.

Create the tagged firewall rule.

Create a test-vm

Create a test-vm instance using the Cloud Shell command line.

  • Create a test-vm instance, in the us-central1-a zone:

gcloud compute instances create test-vm --machine-type=f1-micro --subnet=default --zone=us-central1-a

The output should look like this:

NAME ZONE MACHINE_TYPE PREEMPTIBLE INTERNAL_IP EXTERNAL_IP STATUS test-vm us-central1-a f1-micro 10.142.0.4 35.237.134.68 RUNNING Note: You can easily create VM instances from the Console or the gcloud command line.

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have completed the task successfully you will be granted an assessment score.

Create a test-vm.

Test HTTP connectivity

From test-vm curl the internal and external IP addresses of blue and green.

  1. In the Console, navigate to Navigation menu (Navigation menu icon) > Compute Engine > VM instances.

  2. Note the internal and external IP addresses of blue and green.

  3. For test-vm, click SSH to launch a terminal and connect.

  4. To test HTTP connectivity to blue's internal IP, run the following command, replacing blue's internal IP:

curl <Enter blue's internal IP here> You should see the `Welcome to the blue server!` header.
  1. To test HTTP connectivity to green's internal IP, run the following command, replacing green's internal IP:

curl -c 3 <Enter green's internal IP here>

You should see the Welcome to the green server! header.

Note: You are able to HTTP access both servers using their internal IP addresses. The connection on tcp:80 is allowed by the default- allow-internal firewall rule, as test-vm is on the same VPC network as the web servers default network.
  1. To test HTTP connectivity to blue's external IP, run the following command, replacing blue's external IP:

curl <Enter blue's external IP here>

You should see the Welcome to the blue server! header.

  1. To test HTTP connectivity to green's external IP, run the following command, replacing green's external IP:

curl -c 3 <Enter green's external IP here> Note: This should not work! The request hangs.
  1. Press CTRL+c to stop the HTTP request.
Note: As expected, you are only able to HTTP access the external IP address of the blue server as the allow-http-web-server only applies to VM instances with the web-server tag.

You can verify the same behavior from your browser by opening a new tab and navigating to http://[External IP of server].

Task 3. Explore the Network and Security Admin roles

Cloud IAM lets you authorize who can take action on specific resources, giving you full control and visibility to manage cloud resources centrally. The following roles are used in conjunction with single-project networking to independently control administrative access to each VPC Network:

  • Network Admin: Permissions to create, modify, and delete networking resources, except for firewall rules and SSL certificates.
  • Security Admin: Permissions to create, modify, and delete firewall rules and SSL certificates.

Explore these roles by applying them to a service account, which is a special Google account that belongs to your VM instance, instead of to an individual end user. Rather than creating a new user, you will authorize test-vm to use the service account to demonstrate the permissions of the Network Admin and Security Admin roles.

Verify current permissions

Currently, test-vm uses the Compute Engine default service account, which is enabled on all instances created by Cloud Shell command-line and the Cloud Console.

Try to list or delete the available firewall rules from test-vm.

  1. Return to the SSH terminal of the test-vm instance.

  2. Try to list the available firewall rules:

gcloud compute firewall-rules list

The output should look like this:

ERROR: (gcloud.compute.firewall-rules.list) Some requests did not succeed: - Insufficient Permission Note: This should not work!
  1. Try to delete the allow-http-web-server firewall rule:

gcloud compute firewall-rules delete allow-http-web-server
  1. Enter Y, if asked to continue.

The output should look like this:

ERROR: (gcloud.compute.firewall-rules.delete) Could not fetch resource: - Insufficient Permission Note: This should not work! Note: The Compute Engine default service account does not have the right permissions to allow you to list or delete firewall rules. The same applies to other users who do not have the right roles.

Create a service account

Create a service account and apply the Network Admin role.

  1. In the Console, navigate to Navigation menu (Navigation menu icon) > IAM & admin > Service Accounts.

  2. Notice the Compute Engine default service account.

  3. Click Create service account.

  4. Set the Service account name to Network-admin and click CREATE AND CONTINUE.

  5. For Select a role, select Compute Engine > Compute Network Admin and click CONTINUE then click DONE.

  6. After creating the service account 'Network-admin', click on the three dots at the right corner and click Manage Key in the dropdown, then click on Add Key and select Create new key from the dropdown. Click Create to download your JSON output.

  7. Click Close.

    A JSON key file download to your local computer. Find this key file, you will upload it into the VM in a later step.

  8. Rename the JSON key file on your local machine to credentials.json

Test Completed Task

Click Check my progress to verify your performed task. If you have completed the task successfully you will be granted an assessment score.

Create a Network-admin service account.

Authorize test-vm and verify permissions

Authorize test-vm to use the Network-admin service account.

  1. Return to the SSH terminal of the test-vm instance.

  2. To upload credentials.json through the SSH VM terminal, click on the Upload file icon in the upper-right corner.

  3. Select credentials.json and upload it.

  4. Click Close in the File Transfer window.

    Note: If prompted, click Retry on the Connection via Cloud Identity-Aware Proxy Failed dialog and re-upload the file.
  5. Authorize the VM with the credentials you just uploaded:

gcloud auth activate-service-account --key-file credentials.json Note: The image you are using has the Cloud SDK pre-installed; therefore, you don’t need to initialize the Cloud SDK. If you are attempting this lab in a different environment, make sure you have followed the procedures regarding installing the Cloud SDK.
  1. Try to list the available firewall rules:

gcloud compute firewall-rules list

The output should look like this:

NAME NETWORK DIRECTION PRIORITY ALLOW DENY allow-http-web-server default INGRESS 1000 tcp:80 default-allow-icmp default INGRESS 65534 icmp default-allow-internal default INGRESS 65534 all default-allow-rdp default INGRESS 65534 tcp:3389 default-allow-ssh default INGRESS 65534 tcp:22

This should work!

  1. Try to delete the allow-http-web-server firewall rule:

gcloud compute firewall-rules delete allow-http-web-server
  1. Enter Y, if asked to continue.

The output should look like this:

ERROR: (gcloud.compute.firewall-rules.delete) Could not fetch resource: - Required 'compute.firewalls.delete' permission for 'projects/[PROJECT_ID]/global/firewalls/allow-http-web-server' Note: This should not work! Note: As expected, the Network Admin role has permissions to list but not modify/delete firewall rules.

Update service account and verify permissions

Update the Network-admin service account by providing it the Security Admin role.

  1. In the Console, navigate to Navigation menu (Navigation menu icon) > IAM & admin > IAM.

  2. Find the Network-admin account. Focus on the Name column to identify this account.

  3. Click on the pencil icon for the Network-admin account.

  4. Change Role to Compute Engine > Compute Security Admin.

  5. Click Save.

  6. Return to the SSH terminal of the test-vm instance.

  7. Try to list the available firewall rules:

gcloud compute firewall-rules list

The output should look like this:

NAME NETWORK DIRECTION PRIORITY ALLOW DENY allow-http-web-server default INGRESS 1000 tcp:80 default-allow-icmp default INGRESS 65534 icmp default-allow-internal default INGRESS 65534 all default-allow-rdp default INGRESS 65534 tcp:3389 default-allow-ssh default INGRESS 65534 tcp:22

This should work!

  1. Try to delete the allow-http-web-server firewall rule:

gcloud compute firewall-rules delete allow-http-web-server
  1. Enter Y, if asked to continue.

The output should look like this:

Deleted [https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/qwiklabs-gcp-00e186e4b1cec086/global/firewalls/allow-http-web-server].

This should work!

Note: As expected, the Security Admin role has permissions to list and delete firewall rules.

Verify the deletion of the firewall rule

Verify that you can no longer HTTP access the external IP of the blue server, because you deleted the allow-http-web-server firewall rule.

  1. Return to the SSH terminal of the test-vm instance.

  2. To test HTTP connectivity to blue's external IP, run the following command, replacing blue's external IP:

curl -c 3 <Enter blue's external IP here> Note: This should not work!
  1. Press CTRL+c to stop the HTTP request.
Note: Provide the Security Admin role to the right user or service account to avoid any unwanted changes to your firewall rules!

Congratulations!

In this lab, you created two nginx web servers and controlled external HTTP access using a tagged firewall rule. Then, you created a service account with first the Network Admin role and then the Security Admin role to explore the different permissions of these roles.

If your company has a security team that manages firewalls and SSL certificates and a networking team that manages the rest of the networking resources, then grant the security team the Security Admin role and the networking team the Network Admin role.

Finish your quest

This self-paced lab is part of the Networking in the Google Cloud quest. A quest is a series of related labs that form a learning path. Completing this quest earns you a badge to recognize your achievement. You can make your badge or badges public and link to them in your online resume or social media account. Enroll in this quest or any quest that contains this lab and get immediate completion credit. See the Google Cloud Skills Boost catalog to see all available quests.

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Next steps / Learn more

For information on the basic concepts of Google Cloud Identity and Access Management, see Google Cloud Identity and Access Management Overview

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Manual Last Updated June 15, 2022

Lab Last Tested June 15, 2022

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